The Hybrid ERTMS/ETCS Level 3 (ABZ 2018)

This document presents a description of the European Rail Traffic Management System (ERTMS) case study. ERTMS is a system of standards for management and interoperation of signalling for railways by the European Union (EU). The case study focuses on the ERTMS Level 3 Hybrid principle, which accommodates different types of trains including ERTMS trains equiped with the Train Integrity Monitoring System (TIMS), ERTMS trains without TIMS, and non-ERTMS trains.